Closed System – In the context of embedded systems this relates closely to the engineering context where every input and every response (or output) can be known and can include a specific time. In addition the software is purposely designed for restricted access.
Open System – Specific systems and or applications that allow unrestricted access by people and/or other computers.
Things that think (MIT) – Computing like devices with programming logic that can determine their own interactions and outputs. These devices can interact with other devices, the internet and the physical environment. Source: MIT
Internet of things – interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing like devices with the existing Internet infrastructure.
Ubiquitous computing – a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear everywhere and anywhere. Ubiquitous computing can occur using any device, in any location, and in any format. The underlying technologies to support ubiquitous computing include Internet, advanced middleware, operating system, mobile code, sensors, microprocessors, new I/O and user interfaces, networks, mobile protocols, location and positioning and new materials. Source: Wikipedia
Information appliance – A device that is designed to easily perform a specific electronic function such as playing music, photography, or editing text. Source: Wikipedia
Electronic control unit – a central, sometimes distributed but clearly distinguishable, part of a mechanism that controls its operation, for example a computer that controls the ABS of a motor vehicle.
Microprocessor/microcontroller – used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems.
Embedded operating system – an operating system for embedded computer systems. The application, including the operating system, is usually statically linked together and does not load and execute applications.
Embedded software – computer software, written to control machines or devices that are not typically thought of as computers. It is typically specialized for the particular hardware that it runs on and has time and memory constraints. A characteristic feature is that no or not all functions of embedded software are initiated/controlled via a human interface, but through machine-interfaces instead. Source: Wikipedia
Firmware – In electronic systems and computing, firmware is the combination of persistent memory and program code and data stored in it. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems (such as traffic lights, consumer appliances, and digital watches), computers, computer peripherals, mobile phones, and digital cameras. Source: Wikipedia
System on a chip – A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chp. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. Source: Wikipedia